Musical terms, tempi

For a start, an interesting experiment with mechanical metronomes: click the link
Tempi and the metronome
The tempo a piece is played on is significant for the kind of music it stands for. Therefor the tempo is written down at the beginning of a score, at least in most occasions. Often it does happen that the wanted tempo is indicated using a musical term. So it is good that we do know that Lento does mean slow, and Allegro stands for fast, but yet this does not tell us how to set the metronome. For avoiding this problem we do give a list with the most common tempo terms and the number of beats/minute they stand for. Take note that the number of beats is only an indication!

slow tempo

Very slow
larghissimo: less than 20 beats/minute
lento: 40 - 60
largo: 40 - 60
larghetto: 60 - 66
grave: slow and solemnly
adagio: 66 - 76
adagietto: 70 - 80

Moderately slow
andante: 69 - 84
andantino: 76 - 90

Fast tempo

Moderately fast
allegretto: 98 - 120
moderato: 108 - 120

allegro: 120 - 138
vivace: 144 - 160
vivacissimo: faster than vivace
allegro vivace: 152 - 168

Very fast
allegro assai: 168 - 192
presto: 168 - 192
prestissimo: 200 - 208

Tempo related to a type of dance (indicative)

English walz: 40 - 60
Slow Walz: 84 - 90
Viennese Walz 160 - 180

funeral: 60
modern: 120
Brittish march: 88 - 112
German march: 110 strict tempo
Swedish march: 110 - 112
circus march, or "screamer": 140 - 200
6/8 march: 80 - 84
4/4 march: 84 - 90
2/4 march: 84 - 90
slow air: 52 - 58
jig: 124 - 128
moderate tempo: 104 - 110
slow hornpipe: 70 - 98
fast hornpipe: 155 - 180
reel: 94 - 120
tango: 105 - 140

Indications for a changing tempo

accelerando (acc.): accelerative, progressively faster
a tempo: back to the tempo from before the tempochanging
assai: much, very, quite
calando: getting slower and quieter
l'istesso tempo:  the same tempo
molto: much
meno mosso: less agile, less moving
piu mosso: more moving, faster
poco: a little
poco a poco: little by little
rallentando (rall.): progressively slower
ritardando (rit.): slowing down
ritenuto: suddenly slower, held back (more temporarily than ritardando),  may apply to one single note
rubato: flexible in tempo. The tempo can get faster and slower in one measure: expressive effect
stringendo: gradually getting faster and louder
tempo primo: back to the original tempo

Indications for dynamics, moods, directions and techniques

calando: becoming softer and slower
capriccioso: free in form, lively, virtuosic
crescendo: becoming louder
decrescendo: becoming softer
diminuendo: becoming softer
forte: loud
fortissimo: very loud
marcato: marked, a note played with force
mezzo forte: moderately forte
piano: soft
pianissimo: very soft
mezzo piano: moderately soft
sforzando: suddenly loud, sharply accented

sostenuto: sustained
stentato: loud, boisterous
tremolo: rapid repetitive changing notes,
              variation in the volume of a tone

affetuoso: tenderly
agitato: excited, agitated
animato: animated
brilliante: brilliant, bright
cantabile: in a singing style
con amore: with love
con fuoco: with fire
con brio: brightly
con moto: with movement
con spirito: with spirit
dolce: softly, sweet
espressivo: with expression, 
furioso: with passion, furious
grazioso: with charm
lacrimoso: sadly
maestoso: stately, majestic
misterioso: mysterious
risoluto: decisive, resoluted
scherzando: playfully
vivace: lively, vivacious

acciaccatura: an extra very fast note 
       this usually is written as a smaller note on the score
glissando: a sweeply gliding over the notes
legato: played with a smooth connection between a
           series of notes
non legato: played with just not that connection
           between a series of notes
portato: playing between staccato and legato
tutti: the entire ensemble, all musicians
staccatissimo: forcefully exagerated staccato
staccato: each note is played very short

Da capo (al fine): from the beginning (till the mark "fine")
Dal segno: back to the repeat sign
Coda: final piece